Thanksgiving Reading


Thanksgiving is next week, and many of us will have a break from our regular duties.  So, it’s a great time to enjoy a book .  Here is one of Tutor Amy’s favorite books.

James Still River of Earth ( 245 pages)

Reviewed by Amy Sexton, Writing Center Tutor, Kaplan University Writing Center

Who should read this book?  Anyone who appreciates a solid, strong sense of place in fiction will enjoy the imagery of the Appalachian mountains and their creatures and people. Anyone who enjoys regional literature should appreciate Still’s use of dialect, descriptive language, and sensory details.  Readers who are attracted to strong female characters should delight in the characters of Alpha Baldridge and her mother, known only as Ma and Grandma.
Summary: Set in Appalachian Kentucky, River of Earth chronicles the hard lives of members of the Baldridge and Middleton families around the time of the Great Depression as they struggle internally and externally with the changes of industrialism, which in the Appalachian region meant that many farmers went from needing only the land to feed their families to relying on a violate coal-mining industry.
Why I picked this book? River of Earth is one of those books that sticks with you. I read it for the first time over 15 years ago, and its words and characters have lingered with me since.   It is considered an Appalachian classic, and I can relate to the struggles the family experiences as I come from a family supported by coal mining and understand the trials of hard-working coal miners in a boom or bust economy, then and now.
Favorite quotes from the book: Brack Baldridge, Alpha’s husband, expressing his desire to return to coal mining: “I’m longing to git me a pick and stick it in a coal vein. I can’t draw a clean breath of air outside a mine this time o’ year. It’s like a horse trying to breathe with his nose in a meal poke.”   Alpha, on Brack’s intention to uproot the family and leave their home and small piece of land behind to live in a coal camp: “Forever moving yon and back, setting down nowhere for good and all, searching for God knows what,….Where air we expecting to draw up to?”

 

Simply Being Simpler: Simple Advice to Help Your Students Understand


Kyle Harley

Writing Center Tutor, Kaplan University

Over the course of the past decade, as a writing tutor, I still find myself struggling to understand how and why situations involving students’ frustration with writing assignments evolve into these complex matters we continually see with little to no resolution in sight. This incident popped into my mind after a recent tutoring session where a student voiced concerns over the way the instructor created an assignment. Having experience on both ends of the equation, I felt pangs of guilt begin to emanate from my gut as the student uncovered even deeper frustrations—the student did not find an issue with the assignment at all; instead, the assignment, as it may be, found an issue with the student. Before pen even met paper, the student already felt as if she had failed the assignment—one she was initially excited to begin, as well.

This all sounds a bit far-fetched, but seriously consider how assignments develop over time. At first, yes, they begin as a mere seedling—possibly a question that can be repurposed into a great writing prompt, or maybe you decide on a theme that a series of assignments can mimic over the course of an entire semester. Does this sound remotely similar to anything that we, as instructors of writing, continually preach to our students? Obviously the construction of these assignments comes with a host of issues to take into consideration, but the simple fact at the end of the day remains impossibly simple: sometimes we need to revise our own approach to our own assignments.

I say this partly out of frustration, but more accurately out of wonder. Should we side with the students, citing the instructor’s tyranny as the cause for the educational unrest? In sum, probably not—that seems to cause a bit more harm than good. Instead, I found myself looking at my own teaching methods, and I really took the time to trace my own pedagogy back to the very first class that I taught—talk about frustration. What I realized most about my own assignment construction aligned perfectly with this student’s frustration—I wrote this particularly complex assignment for myself and expected students to understand exactly what I meant. The language was overly elevated, and I even put information in the assignment regarding citation at a point in the semester when each of my students’ names remained a mystery. If I signed up for my own class, I may have dropped within the first few weeks—take that, ego.

Because of this punch in the academic-gut, I decided to dissect some of these student frustrations and offer a short, easy list of suitable solutions that have proven to work when expecting such great results from these students.

  • As an instructor, understand that the way you construct your assignment’s instructions can make or break the end product.

The title might be a bit preachy, but the reality behind the message could not be any more absolute. When we receive a paper that contains far too much information or the wording may be a bit lengthy, our first reaction includes suggesting the student pare down some of the information to create a leaner document. So why do we not apply this same ruling to our assignment construction? By no means am I suggesting that you lower the level of your academic assignments; instead, why not try using more direct language that addresses the exact requirements of the assignment? As an avid proponent of ‘fluff’ in any and all forms of writing, this pains me to say, but at times you just need to get to the point. If you construct assignments and students frequently come to you seeking clarity on what the assignment is asking them to accomplish, the issue at hand simply involves a quick revising session of the assignment’s language. There is no need to take this personally; instead, remember that you are the mentor here—you should want your students to succeed.

  • In an ‘age of technology,’ we still must remember that technology costs money—and quite a bit of it.

Branching off of the last suggestion, practically all assignments in the university setting require some form of technology to accomplish, which we must also remember comes with a price tag that many students simply cannot afford. Because of this, many teachers assume that students understand how to proficiently work technological applications we take for granted on a daily basis. I find myself a bit shocked when a student asks how to operate their e-mail account, but then I remember that I, too, needed this same guidance when I began my journey back at Kent State University before Facebook even had a face. The only way that students will learn to navigate the academic channels smoothly involves helping them along the way, and sometimes that may well take a simple lesson such as how to open an attachment in an e-mail or even get started typing their paper. This sounds simplest of all, but none of us learned to ride a bike before we crawled across the floor.

  • Still not convinced? Okay—send them to us!

It is understandable that many instructors may see these smaller activities as a waste of time—if you can’t take the heat, stay out of the kitchen, right? Wrong. That is where we come in. If you find that students are still struggling to understand your assignments, we can help! Sometimes students need someone else to break down the dense assignment instructions for them, and, luckily for students, tutors love to unpack assignments and get students started on the right path.

Many of these suggestions might seem rather obvious, but the fact of the matter remains that many students cannot access their assignments due to a pretty silly gatekeeping mechanism that need not be in place. By approaching our assignment construction differently, we, as educators and mentors, could possibly open an avenue to an impossibly bright mind by simply being simpler.

Writing Centers, Accessibility, and CRLA 2013


Molly Wright Starkweather

Writing Center Tutor, Kaplan University

One of the best features of teaching and tutoring writing online is opening the doors to students of all abilities, including students who have been diagnosed with a disability. According to a 2009 guide by the U.S. Department of Justice, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) defines a disability as restricting day-to-day life activities, like mobility (walking or driving) or communication (hearing or seeing), among others. Online education can reduce many of the concerns that students with disabilities might have with an on-ground campus. For instance, a student with mobility limitations will not have to seek accommodations for campus parking or classroom access, since the campus is virtual. Of course, online campuses can present their own unique challenges to keeping education accessible to students with disabilities. Sometimes the prospect of accommodating students of all abilities can seem daunting, especially when the virtual education landscape (including legislation and university protocol) changes in response to new research in disability studies and higher education and in response to new assistive technologies. When tutors and teachers of writing consider the whole student experience for learners with disabilities, the daunting prospect becomes a promising opportunity for growing even stronger in our service to all students.

Professor of Special Education and higher education inclusion advocate David Connor (2012) reminds those working with students with disabilities to view the student’s challenge and accommodations as part of a different, not deficient, learning process. It has been common knowledge among my colleagues at different universities that an accommodation is meant to provide nothing more than an equally accessible educational experience. When I have taught composition, I have never changed my grading standards from student to student, and none of my students with accommodations have wanted an easier experience than their classmates. The goal of providing accommodations for disabilities in a higher education setting is to open access and opportunity for all students.

How does the Kaplan University Writing Center open access and opportunity for all students? Since we are tutors as part of academic support, there are no discussions of accommodations as instructors would see in a classroom setting, but there is a responsibility for all center staff to create equal opportunity and access for students with disabilities. Some of these possibilities were explored as part of a recent conference for academic support professionals.

On November 7, 2013, three Kaplan University faculty and staff presented as part of a panel on “Faculty and Academic Learning Centers: Supporting Students with Learning Disabilities” at the College Reading and Learning Association (CRLA) conference in Boston, MA. My fellow panel members included Kira Shank and Sheryl Bone of Kaplan University, as well as Nita Meola of Columbia College in Chicago and Teresa Carrillo of Joliet Junior College.

During the 90-minute exchange between panelists and participants, our panel discussed the tools we use in serving students with learning and other disabilities. Here are some of the best takeaways that come to my mind:

 

  1. Approach the task of including students with disabilities from a standpoint of hospitality. Providing accommodations is not about extra work for instructors or easier assignments for students; rather, providing accommodations is about making space for learning.

 

  1. As professionals involved in academic support, we should be aware of the Center for Disability Services. Keep up with the center by attending staff development presentations (or even student presentations) routinely, and make room for discussing the center’s services as part of teaching and tutoring where appropriate, like in the syllabus.

 

  1. Remember that students with disabilities need respect and privacy. While it is good to discuss campus resources like the Center for Disability Services openly to eliminate stigma and get valuable information out to students, it is also important to communicate discreetly with students about individual circumstances. Show respect for the student by listening actively and deferring to the authority of Disability Services whenever appropriate, especially when it comes to articulating accommodations.

What might be some other considerations as we continue opening access to all higher education learners?

References

Connor, D. (2012). Helping students with disabilities transition to college: 21 tips for students with LD and/or ADD/ADHD. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(5), 16-25.

U.S. Department of Justice. (2009). A guide to disability rights laws. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm

Writing to Make a Difference


Stephanie Thompson

Composition Professor, Kaplan University

I have been teaching composition for over 20 years in a variety of settings, both at brick-and-mortar and online schools. One constant across the years has been the oft-heard query, “Why is this class required?” That question is usually followed by a reason ranging from “My career field will not require me to write” to “I took this class at a community college 20 years ago, but they would not give me a transfer credit.” I can rattle off quotes from employers’ surveys stating that effective communication skills are a top priority and emphasize the value of being able to write clearly and concisely in personal, professional, and academic situations. However, some students will continue to resent the requirement unless they discover that writing can, in fact, be relevant to their own lives.

Because many students find the writing process intimidating–perhaps they have even been told they are not “good writers”–helping them to discover their inner writer can be especially challenging. This is even more true with nontraditional students who may not have written a paper for a grade in two or three decades. These are a few tips that can help students ease back into writing and discover its joys:

  1. Provide low-stakes writing opportunities. Journal entries, credit/no credit discussion prompts, and guided reactions to readings all give students the chance to write without the fear of a bad grade. If they can earn points just for writing, without fear of committing grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors, they may realize that they enjoy writing for writing’s sake.
  2. Postpone higher-stakes assignments until students have had time to settle into the class, get some feedback on low-stakes writing, and seek help if needed. Asking students to write a paper for a significant grade before they have had the chance to familiarize themselves with the course, get to know their teacher’s grading style, and find topics they are invested in will lead to greater frustration and perhaps more grade complaints.
  3. Give students the chance to explore topics they care about and discover new avenues for research, including interviews and other primary sources. Simply assigning generic pro/con topics, requiring them to find academic sources, or forcing students to analyze difficult pieces of literature will probably only reinforce their sense that the course is a box they have to check on their way to a degree.

The team that develops composition curriculum at Kaplan University used all of these approaches when revising the composition II course. Low-stakes writing prompts give students the chance to reflect upon past writing and research experiences and share insights with classmates. The first project is not due until the course is more than a third over, and students have been writing about their selected topic in the class discussions for three weeks prior to submitting this project; only the final project for the course is worth more than 10% of the overall grade.

Finally, the topic itself is as crucial to the class as the writing process. Students target a problem in their community and propose a strategy for tackling that problem. While the course emphasizes effective persuasion techniques, including the construction of an effective thesis statement, the avoidance of logical fallacies, and the importance of using credible research to support claims, students are also learning about an issue that impacts their day-to-day life. A parent of a special needs child may explore special education regulations and propose a needed change to the local school system, a future psychologist may examine new therapies for addiction, and an aspiring nutritionist may advocate the need for healthier school lunches in her child’s school district. Allowing students to select their topics and interview both specialists and those who might be affected by the proposal they are making helps them to see how writing and research can be a part of their daily lives and how, in fact, their voices can make a difference in their community.

Students given these opportunities to problem-solve and discover new ways to advocate for a cause often find that writing becomes less intimidating, and classes become an opportunity to learn from one another and shape more effective arguments.

How to Cure the Run-On Sentence


Dr. Tamara Fudge, Professor School of IT, Kaplan University

 

One of the most common writing mistakes I see as a professor is the run-on sentence. Before I offer a cure for this malady, I must first confess that I have one of those T-shirts that says, “Let’s Eat Grandma! Let’s Eat, Grandma! Punctuation Saves Lives.” I also have one that says “Grammar Police: To Correct and Serve.” Yes, I’m one of those people.

I also firmly believe in the Oxford comma despite having spent several years of work in the newspaper industry. Let’s just suffice it to say that punctuation is quite an important element in producing satisfactory work.

Run-ons are essentially sentences that are awkwardly stuck together and are missing some of that crucial punctuation, like this one: Several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company they are going to be prosecuted.

This is confusing, as the phrase “the company they” doesn’t make sense. It is also not perfectly clear if the coworkers or the company itself will be prosecuted. There are too many subjects and verbs and completed thoughts, and not enough punctuation to show where one idea ends, and the other begins.

Also,  although pauses are not always a reason for punctuation, you might pause after “company” when reading this out loud. All of this is … well, it’s awkward, and it needs a cure.

The good news is that there are actually several cures from which to choose! This means you have the potential for better sentence variety. Five great choices are shown below.

  1. Divide into two sentences:
    • Several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company. They are going to be prosecuted.
  2. Use a comma followed by a logical coordinating conjunction (for, an, nor, but, or, yet, so) between statements:
    • Several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company, so they are going to be prosecuted.
  3. Use a subordinate conjunction (such as Because, Since, When, etc.) at the beginning, and then a comma between statements:
    • Because several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company, they are going to be prosecuted.
  4. Use a semi-colon between statements:
    • Several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company; they are going to be prosecuted.
  5. If the statements present opposing ideas, use a semicolon + however + a comma:
    • Several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company; however, they are not going to be prosecuted.

Please note that a comma splice is similar to a run-on except that instead of lacking punctuation, there is a lonely comma ineffectively separating the statements. Example: Several coworkers were stealing supplies from the company, they are going to be prosecuted. One of the above methods can be employed to correct comma splices, too.

Emergent writers might use run-ons and comma splices because it’s far too easy to write like we speak. Unfortunately, the written word isn’t the same thing as conversation. It doesn’t take non-verbal cues into consideration such as the use of time (those pesky pauses), emphasis (inflection), and so forth. While it can be hard to write formally, there is a cure for writing run-ons!

 

The Last Wild — Dystopian Fall Reading


The Last Wild (2013, 322 pages)

Piers Torday

Reviewed by Stephanie Thompson, Composition Department, Kaplan University Writing Center

Who should read this book? Fans of YA dystopian fiction will enjoy sharing this book with their pre-teens (the target age is 8-12). Torday’s novel ends on a cliffhanger, and the biographical note indicates he is working on the next part of the story.

Summary: Torday explores a world where the “red eye” virus has killed almost every animal except for “varmints” like roaches, crops have been destroyed out of fear that they will spread the disease, and humans live in sanitized Quarantine Zones. They survive by eating formula, a pink, goopy substance with flavors like “Chicken and Chips” manufactured by the Facto Corporation.  This formula is their only means of sustenance.

downloadYoung Kester Jaynes has been in Spectrum Hall, a facility for problem children, for almost half of his life. He thinks he is being punished for not talking, a psychological reaction to his mother’s death. One day, he realizes he can communicate with animals; a group of roaches and pigeons helps him escape from Spectrum Hall and takes him to the Ring of Trees, where a group of animals hides from humans. They need Jaynes to find his father—a famous scientist who may have a cure for the red eye—before they, too, succumb to the disease, and animals truly become extinct.

Jaynes then embarks on a quest with a stag, a wolf, and a cockroach. Along the way, he meets Polly and her cat Sidney, who have survived outside of the Quarantine Zone, and together they search for Jaynes’ father. While their journey does end, the novel’s closing pages guarantee they are not finished fighting the evil Facto Corporation.

Why I picked this book? My son and I read together nightly, and I found this book on a recent trip to Twig, San Antonio’s independent bookstore. Since my son is nonverbal, the idea of a mute lead character appealed to me, and my love of animals also made this a must-read. Parents who read aloud with their children will love creating the voices of different animals, or for those whose children are independent readers, they can discuss the novel’s intriguing issues, particularly those about humans’ relationships with and responsibilities for protecting animals and the environment. The recent stories about the pig virus outbreak also make the novel frighteningly timely.

Using Analogies to Describe Student Services: The Gym Analogy


Molly Wright Starkweather

Kaplan University Writing Center Tutor

 

Often when students hear about a tutoring service like a writing center, they get a vision of the center that is a little less than accurate. Some students think of a tutoring center as an exile for remedial students, a sort of leper colony for students having trouble forming a thesis statement. Instructors and administrators might see the writing center as a sort of clinic where serious grammatical and syntactic conditions are treated by caring staff. The writing center is, in fact, where students learn writing as a process in a dynamic space complementary to—and collaboratively with– the classroom. While grammar and other lower order concerns are part of the writing center’s purpose, higher order concerns like organization and thesis statements are also a big part of writing center tutoring services. Class visits, faculty presentations, and mission statements can do well to clarify the role of writing center services; however, often students, faculty, and administrators continue to see the writing center as a place for remedial work among remedial students. With analogies and metaphors describing the role of the writing center among an institution’s students and faculty, the mission statements and advertising become amplified, applied in a way that is more relatable to our campus population.

This blog entry is the first in a three-part series exploring the most effective analogies comparing writing centers with other campus entities, including gyms, clinics, and laboratories. Since these other campus services are more familiar as part of the traditional notion of a campus, it can be helpful to situate the writing center among these other services in order to demonstrate the established role of the writing center on campus. Using these analogies opens up a world of possibilities in terms of self-representation and advertising, from reaching students with clever memes to describing effective pedagogy to faculty to amplifying mission and goals to administrators.

Every college and university emphasizes the health of its community, whether student, faculty, or beyond. One of the ways that the typical institution encourages healthy living is by highlighting active living through regular exercise. A search of most colleges online will yield results showcasing gyms and recreation centers ranging from the modest to the professional sports association-quality. Gyms do not just give benefit to the body; they also give benefit to the mind and total quality of living while studying. A good workout requires focus and concentration, skills that pay dividends beyond the locker room. According to Amy Patterson Neubert, in a 2013 study by Purdue University, regular visits to the gym led to higher grade point averages. Kaplan University emphasizes healthy living by encouraging students to find creative ways to incorporate exercise in their daily lives of work, family, and study. Several archived time management presentations encourage students to seek out time for self-care, including exercise. In short, regular exercise at a gym is a familiar concept for college students of all kinds.

I have found it helpful to describe to students and faculty the role of the writing center as being like that of a gym on campus, only instead of exercising the body, we exercise writing skills. After all, the starting point of most conversations around the role of a writing center involves lower order concerns like grammar, which are most often perfected through regular exercises. From there, I can shift the focus of the conversation to how one visit to the gym does not strengthen our muscles as much as regular visits to the gym can; consequently, one visit to the writing center is not going to improve all of a student’s writing skills as much as routine visits to the writing center over time can. This point leads to discussing how writing involves a process, not just a product, and how diligent work over time produces the best results rather than short bursts of work in isolated work periods. Mental work, in this way, is very much like physical work.

At this point in the conversation, the audience understands that the writing center is like a gym in that regular work can sharpen lower order writing skills over time. We have established that writing is a process and that that process should include regular, not just remedial or emergency, visits to the writing center. How can the conversation open up to show how the writing center fits in with the classroom and the university as a whole? Often, I point out that sports teams are the groups who use the gym the most, just as whole classes (particularly composition classes) are the ones who use the writing center the most. Just like a sports team will meet to train for an upcoming game, a class will meet regularly in preparation for a big assignment. The coach sets the long and short-term goals for the team, the same way a teacher will set the long and short-term goals for a class. For the sports team, certain members might need to go to the gym to work out certain performance skills in order to improve based on their contribution to the team. (A running back, for instance, might need to do more sprinting on the field, so there will be more trips involved to the gym to practice on the treadmill.) In the same way, certain students in a class might need to polish certain writing skills, like transitioning from paragraph to paragraph, individually in the writing center. When an athlete goes to the gym, he or she will likely meet with a trainer to discuss individual goals so that that athlete improves his or her performance. When a student in a class goes to the writing center, he or she will meet with a tutor to discuss individual writing goals to improve his or her performance in the classroom and on high stakes writing assignments.

When it comes to the university as a whole, both the gym and the writing center are meant for everyone. There are faculty exercise groups, whole campus health initiatives like bicycling to class, and gym hours that serve faculty as well as students. Likewise, writing centers open themselves up for use by faculty members as well. Depending on the center, the services available to faculty might include special writing retreats or article “boot camps” where the writing center becomes a supportive environment for a weekend of writing. There are also centers, like the Kaplan University Writing Center, that offer the same services to faculty as to students, allowing faculty to send in questions or come in for live chat tutoring to double check a writing or citation question. Since learning is a lifelong process, and since professionals must still exercise skills in order to hone their craft, it makes perfect sense for writing centers to be open to all members of the campus community.

Making the comparison between a campus staple like the gym and an academic workout center like the writing center can show that both entities are more than meets the eye. A university’s gym or recreation center is a space where students exercise the mind and body for long and short-term benefits to performing physical feats. A university’s writing center is a space where students exercise the mind with respect to communication for long and short-term benefits to performing writing feats. The use of this analogy emphasizes the process-oriented, campus-wide, student-centered nature of the writing center.